• Focus on the behaviours rather than on appearance or affiliation – the delivery of interventions and services should be focussed on changing behaviours rather than focussing on what the recipient looks like or who they are affiliated to.
  • Remove the labels – there is a propensity to label h2r communities by their sub cultures, like gangs, youth gangs, druggies, crims, etc. Labelling theorists argue that labelling can create a self-fulfilling prophecy situation where the person’s behaviours become influenced by the label.
  • Recognise that there is good in all h2r whānau and communities – regardless of how alienated or dysfunctional a whānau or community may be, there will always be some good within it – identify and focus on the good/strength of that whānau or community.
  • Recognise leadership and diversity – h2r whānau and community are not a homogenous group and they all have their own leaders that agencies need to accept and work with.
  • Engage h2r whānau and community – recognise h2r whānau and community are not passive recipients but are aspirational and are capable of designing, developing and delivering their own interventions and services that will factor in their whānau and community realities. People who have common experiences with hard to reach populations are the most appropriate people to design and deliver intervention projects because they can share their experiences of what has led them to make positive life choices.[1]
  • Build capability and capacity – recognise h2r whānau and community leaders are often people with instinctive leadership qualities but they may need support to develop to their skill of leadership.
  • Mobilise whānau and community – changing negative sub culture behaviours effectively requires the h2r whānau and communities acceptance for the need to change.
  • Support and resource h2r whānau and community initiatives – engage, support and resource h2r whānau and community to design, develop and deliver their own services.

[1] Spee.K. (2008) Investments in Effective Interventions Programme of Action for Māori initiatives Evaluation of the ‘Hard to Reach Youth’ project: Evaluation Report Te Puni Kōkiri. Unpublished.